So far we’ve examined:
- one needs only the written Bible (Sola Scriptura)
- If you are saved, you should be able to simply read and understand the Bible. If you cannot understand it, this is a warning sign you may not be saved.
- The commandments in the NT are so easy, one does not require a Magisterium to understand it
- The RCC has no proof whatsoever for a Magisterium.
- The Bible was once delivered to the saints, and at the close of the canon in AD 95, anyone who adds to it is under a curse.
- The Roman Catholic views of the Bible
- The laity and the ownership/study/reading of the Bible
- The Magisterium refuted
- Salvation by faith alone vs. works
- infant baptism refuted
- baptismal regeneration refuted
- The Apocrypha was never quoted by the New Testament
- The Apocrypha was not considered scripture by anyone for at least 400 years – after all the official lists of the inspired canon had been done
- The apocrypha was never quoted by church fathers for at least 2 centuries after the time of Christ
- The Bible is only the 66 books of the bible
- Papal Infallibility is unScriptural
- Papal Infallibility places the Pope in the place of God, elevating him to being God’s “Equal”, a goal that Lucifer desired
- Papal Infallibility is also patently illogical, as Inerrant Word Ex Cathedra must also imply inerrant thought and inerrant action
- There is no evidence Peter ever went to Rome, besides the earliest tradition he was brought there to be crucified upside down. That is tradition, not church history.
- Peter was not given the choice of who goes to heaven or not.
- There is no evidence Peter was the first Pope
- The pastor of the Church at Rome at the timme of the book of Romans, late in Paul’s career, was either Rufus or Aquila, and history records the name of the first pastor of the Roman Church as Linus.
- The letter to the Romans does not list Peter’s name as among the church at Rome. Nor do any of Paul’s epistles to the other churches mention him, unless referring to Jerusalem.
- The practive of dividing the congregation into two classes, clergy and laity, with the clergy exalted over the congregation, is called Nicolaitanism. The Lord Jesus Christ hates this practice (Rev. 2:15)
- The Catholic priesthood usurps the position of the Born again believer
- The Catholic priesthood steals the concept of the Levitical priesthood under the erroneos assumption the Church replaces Israel.
- Pastor, minister, Bishop and elder are synonymous terms for the same job.
- There is no Scriptural basis for the Roman Catholic priesthood.
- There is no scriptural basis for a hierarchy of the priesthood
- There is no Scriptural basis for the Papal office
- The Cardinal’s hat originates from the Babylonian/Canaanite cult of Dagon worship
We’re making a lot of headway. Alas, I don’t think I can say I’m even close to halfway in refuting and answering the Roman Catholic Church!
At this point, if you’re honest with yourself, I’ve called into question so much of the Roman Catholic church, you should be seriously questioning yourself about it.
I’m going to quote, verbatim, from a E-Sword Module made public by Mary Ann Collins, a former Nun Novitiate. This information I have verified, as it is confirmed by Church history, by my classes in Church History I had in Seminary, and also by David Cloud’s excellent DVD series on Church history (see www.wayoflife.org). This is all accurate information.
Pope Honorius reigned from 625 to 638 A.D. He was condemned as a heretic by the Sixth Ecumenical Council (680-681). He was also condemned as a heretic by Pope Leo II, as well as by every other pope until the eleventh century.1
In 768, Pope Stephen IV came to power with the help of an army. Within one week, he went from being a layman to being a Pope. His papal rival was beaten, blinded, and probably murdered.2
Pope Leo V only reigned for one month (July 903). Cardinal Christopher put Leo in prison and became Pope. Then Christopher was put in prison by Cardinal Sergius. While in prison, Leo and Christopher were murdered.3
Pope John XII reigned from 955 to 963. He was a violent man. He was so lustful that people of his day said that he turned the Lateran Palace into a brothel. When gambling, he invoked pagan gods and goddesses. He was killed by a jealous husband while in the act of committing adultery with the man’s wife.4
In the tenth century, a wealthy Italian noblewoman named Marozia put nine popes into office in eight years. In order to do that, she also had to get rid of reigning popes. Two of them were strangled, one was suffocated, and four disappeared under mysterious circumstances. One of the popes was Marozia’s son; he was fathered by a Pope.5
In 1003, Pope Silvester II was murdered by his successor, Pope John XVII.6 Pope Benedict VIII reigned from 1012 to 1024. He became Pope by winning a military victory. When Benedict VIII died, his brother seized power by means of bribery and/or extortion, becoming Pope John XIX. He had himself ordained a priest, consecrated as a bishop, and crowned as pope, all in the same day.7
Pope Benedict IX reigned from 1032 to 1044, in 1045, and from 1047 to 1048. He became Pope through bribery. He squandered the wealth of the papacy on prostitutes and lavish banquets, and he had people murdered. The citizens of Rome hated Benedict so much that on two occasions, he had to flee from Rome. Benedict sold the papacy to Pope Gregory VI.8
Pope Boniface VIII reigned from 1294 to 1303. He came to power through bribery. He was suspected of having people murdered. Because of his hatred for two cardinals, he had the towns associated with them destroyed.9
Pope Clement VI reigned from 1342 to 1352. He ordered the slaughter of an entire Italian town. He lived a life of luxury and extravagance. He openly admitted that he sold church offices (i.e., men paid him a lot of money to become a bishop or a cardinal). He used threats and bribery to gain power. Clement purchased a French palace, which became famous for its prostitutes.10
Pope Alexander VI (the Borgia Pope) reigned from 1492 to 1503. He was known for murder, bribery, and selling cardinals’ hats (i.e., men paid him a lot of money to become cardinals). He enjoyed luxurious living, and he worked to make the Borgia family more powerful and more wealthy. The art book Treasures of the Vatican shows a portrait of him wearing gold vestments that are covered with jewels. They look like pearls, emeralds, large rubies, and other jewels. His tiara (the papal crown) is gold, with three rows of large jewels on it. Alexander VI had a number of children by several mistresses. His son Cesare was known for the kinds of murderous intrigues that make good opera plots. (Cesare and his papal father are included in a website about serial killers.) According to The Oxford Dictionary of Popes, Cesare and Pope Alexander VI killed people and seized their property. On two occasions, Alexander had to leave Rome, and he gave his daughter, Lucrezia Borgia, the authority to run the city. The Pope died after having dinner with a cardinal. (He accidentally drank some poisoned wine that was intended for the cardinal.)11
Pope Julius II reigned from 1503 to 1513. He became Pope through bribery. He had a reputation for violence, drunkenness, and rages. The Roman people gave him the nickname “il terribile” (the terrible one).12
Pope Leo X was from the de Medici family which (like the Borgias) was known for ruthless and devious politics, including assassinations. As Pope, he worked to advance the wealth and power of the de Medici family. He reigned from 1513 to 1521. He lived luxuriously and paid for it by selling cardinals’ hats. He filled Rome with statues of Greek gods and goddesses. He also put a statue of himself in Rome’s Capitol, to be saluted by the public. Leo X sold indulgences in order to build St. Peter’s Cathedral. One of Pope Leo’s traveling preachers (indulgence salesmen) was John Tetzel, who sold indulgences in an area of Germany near Martin Luther. Tetzel’s claims of great power and efficacy of the indulgences he was selling angered Luther, and he responded by nailing his famous 95 theses of protest on the Wittenburg church door.13
Pope Gregory VII reigned from 1073 to 1085. He required kings and emperors to kiss his foot. Gregory and his successors used forged documents in order to expand the power of the papacy. Some Roman Catholics tried to expose these forgeries, but they were excommunicated for it. However, the Orthodox Church kept records and wrote detailed information about the forgeries.14
Simony was rampant among clerics. It was commonplace for priests to pay money in order to become bishops and abbots. Some popes took bribes to make men cardinals. Pope Gregory VII said that he knew of more than 40 men who became Pope by means of bribery.15
Pope Innocent III reigned from 1198 to 1216. He said that the Pope is the ruler of the world, and claimed power and authority over kings and emperors. Innocent said that he was above earthly moral laws and standards of ethics, and therefore, clergy and kings must obey him, even if he ordered them to do something that they considered to be evil.16
Would you want any of these men to be your pastor?
Sometimes two or more men would claim to be Pope at the same time. All of these claimants to the papacy had followers. Eventually one contender would be declared to be Pope, and the other would be declared to be an antipope. For centuries, Roman Catholic books differed as to which men they considered to be the genuine popes. However, today there is much more agreement about which men were popes and which men were antipopes. According to the Catholic Encyclopedia, there were thirty antipopes.17
Under Bishop Silvester, high-ranking clergymen wore purple robes, imitating the purple of Constantine’s court. (Purple dye was so expensive that only royalty could afford it.) The Church also imitated the pomp and authority structure of Rome. Bishops dressed and acted like Roman emperors, and they had the same imperial attitude.19
The power of the Bishops of Rome increased, and they called themselves popes. They lived in luxury, and they wanted to rule over both church and state. Imperial papacy reached its peak during the Middle Ages. Popes were rich and powerful, and they ruled over kings and emperors.
Pope Gregory VII reigned from 1073 to 1085. He excommunicated the Holy Roman Emperor, Henry IV. In order to receive forgiveness from the Pope and to have the excommunication be removed, Emperor Henry had to spend three days repenting in front of the castle where the Pope was staying. It was bitter cold (January 1077). Henry spent most of his time kneeling in the ice and snow, weeping and pleading for forgiveness. When Gregory finally allowed Henry to come into the castle, the Pope publicly humiliated the Emperor.20
Pope Gregory VII declared that the Pope has the right to depose kings and emperors, to make laws, and to require secular rulers to kiss his feet. Gregory wanted to make the countries of Europe become feudal estates of the Pope, with all of the kings meekly obeying him. He said that he (and the orders he gave) could not be judged by earthly moral and ethical standards, because no man has the right to judge the Pope. Gregory also declared that, because of the merits of Saint Peter, every duly elected Pope is a saint. Up until the time of Gregory VII, popes referred to themselves as the Vicar (representative) of St. Peter. Gregory changed that, calling himself the Vicar of Christ, a term which has been used by popes since then.21
Pope Innocent III reigned from 1198 to 1216. He wore a gold crown covered with jewels and sat upon a purple throne. His clothes sparkled with gold and jewels, and his horse was covered with scarlet. Kings and clergy kissed his foot. Innocent became the most powerful man in the world. He said that he was “below God but above man.” He also said that God wanted him to govern the entire world.22
Pope Boniface VIII reigned from 1294 to 1303. He said that he was Caesar, the Roman Emperor. He wore a crown which was covered with more than 200 costly jewels, including rubies, emeralds, sapphires, and large pearls.23 Boniface sought to further increase the Pope’s power and authority. In his encyclical Unam Sanctam, he said that no person can be saved unless he or she is subject to the Pope.24
Pope Paul II reigned from 1464 to 1471. He enjoyed luxurious living and had a tiara of gold that was covered with jewels. He had “Bacchanalian parades” that revived the pagan “carnival games” of ancient Rome. After the games, the people gathered in front of the Pope’s palace to eat, and then the Pope stood on his balcony and threw money to the crowd.25
Pope Paul VI reigned from 1963 to 1978. He was the last Pope to wear the papal tiara. This is a triple crown, made of gold and covered with jewels. You can see pictures of the tiara online.26
The Pope is an absolute monarch in the Vatican. He sits on an ornate throne. You can see pictures of the throne online.27
Cardinals are called “princes of the Church.” They are citizens of the Vatican in addition to being citizens of their homelands.28
Popes, cardinals and bishops wear gold and jewels. They wear rings and crosses. The Pope has a special ring known as the “Ring of the Fisherman.” He also has magnificent pontifical rings which he wears on special occasions. Cardinals have rings of sapphire and gold. They often have additional rings of their own choosing.29
For special occasions, popes, cardinals, and bishops wear vestments that are decorated with gold or made of gold cloth. (This is cloth that is actually made of real gold.) Some vestments are studded with jewels. Even the gloves of high-ranking churchmen are decorated with gold. Such imperial splendor was prevalent during the Middle Ages, but it still exists today. During the Middle Ages, gloves were sometimes studded with jewels. But even in recent times, they are decorated with gold. Pope Pius XII reigned from 1939 to 1958. He had gloves and shoes that were decorated with gold. Some of his shoes had jewels on them.30
(Mary Ann Collins, Catholic Concerns: Where does the Road to Rome lead?)
Here are the sources quoted, that you may verify them.
1. William Webster, The Church of Rome at the Bar of History, pp. 67-68, op. cit. The author is Catholic.
2. Claudio Rendina, The Popes: Histories and Secrets (Santa Ana, CA: Seven Locks Press, 2002), pp. 153-157. There is some confusion as to whether this Pope was Stephen III or Stephen IV. This is because an earlier Stephen (who would have been Stephen II) was elected Pope but he died before he was consecrated.
3. J.N.D. Kelly, The Oxford Dictionary of Popes (New York: Oxford University Press, 1996), pp. 118-120.
4. Russell Chamberlin, The Bad Popes (Phoenix Mill, England: Sutton Publishing Ltd., 2003), pp. 42-45, 60-61.
5. Ibid., pp. 25-39.
6. Claudio Rendina, The Popes: Histories and Secrets, pp. 243-247, op. cit.
7. Ibid., pp. 248-251.
8. J.N.D. Kelly, The Oxford Dictionary of Popes, pp. 142-144, op. cit.
9. Claudio Rendina, The Popes: Histories and Secrets, pp. 357-364, op. cit.
10. Richard P. McBrien, Lives of the Popes: The Pontiffs from St. Peter to John Paul II (San Francisco, CA: Harper, 2000), pp. 240-242. The author is a Professor of Theology at the University of Notre Dame.
11. Claudio Rendina, The Popes: Histories and Secrets, pp. 431-436, op. cit.  Russell Chamberlin, The Bad Popes, pp. 161-208, op. cit.
In the Vatican, there is a portrait of Pope Alexander VI wearing gold vestments that are covered with jewels. There is a large, full-color picture in Albert Skira, Treasures of the Vatican (Washington, DC: National Geographic Society, 1991), p.86.
“The Borgias,” Serial Killers: Killers from History. (Accessed 10/13/08) http://www.trutv.com/library/crime/serial_killers/history/borgias/6.html
12. J.N.D. Kelly, The Oxford Dictionary of Popes, pp. 255-256, op. cit.
13. Russell Chamberlin, The Bad Popes, pp. 209-252, op. cit.  Claudio Rendina, The Popes: Histories and Secrets, pp. 441-446, op. cit.  J.N.D. Kelly, The Oxford Dictionary of Popes, pp. 256-258, op. cit.
14. Paul Johnson, A History of Christianity (New York: Touchstone, Simon & Schuster, 1995), pp. 161, 194-198.  Kans Küng, The Catholic Church: A Short History (translated by John Bowden) (New York: Modern Library, 2001, 2003), pp. 85-92.
William Webster, “Forgeries and the Papacy: The Historical Influence and Use of Forgeries in Promotion of the Doctrine of the Papacy.” The author is a former Catholic. (Accessed 10/12/08) http://www.christiantruth.com/forgeries.html
15. Claudio Rendina, The Popes: Histories and Secrets, pp. 309-316, op. cit. “Simony,” The Catholic Encyclopedia, Vol. XIV, 1912. (Accessed 10/13/08) http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/14001a.htm
16. Paul Johnson, A History of Christianity, pp. 199-201, op. cit.
17. Richard P. McBrien, Lives of the Popes, pp. 466-468, op. cit.
“Antipope,” The Catholic Encyclopedia, Vol. I, 1907. (Accessed 10/13/08) http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/01582a.htm
19. Hans Küng, The Catholic Church: A Short History, pp. 33-44, op. cit.  Malachi Martin, The Decline and Fall of the Roman Church (New York: G.P. Putnam’s Sons, 1981), pp. 19-38. The author was a Catholic priest.
20. Paul Johnson, A History of Christianity, pp. 194-197, op. cit.  Peter de Rosa, Vicars of Christ: The Dark Side of the Papacy (Dublin, Ireland: Poolbeg Press, 1988), pp. 62-66.  Malachi Martin, The Decline and Fall of the Roman Church, pp. 137-146, op. cit.
21. Paul Johnson, A History of Christianity, pp. 196-197, op. cit.  Claudio Rendina, The Popes: Histories and Secrets, pp. 268-274, op. cit.  J.N.D. Kelly, The Oxford Dictionary of Popes, pp. 154-156, op. cit.  Richard P. McBrien, Lives of the Popes, pp. 185-188, op. cit.  Malachi Martin, The Decline and Fall of the Roman Church, p. 140, op. cit.
22. Peter de Rosa, Vicars of Christ: The Dark Side of the Papacy, pp. 66-69, op. cit.  Paul Johnson, A History of Christianity, p. 199, op. cit.  Claudio Rendina, The Popes: Histories and Secrets, pp. 309-316, op. cit.  J.N.D. Kelly, The Oxford Popes, pp. 209-211, op. cit.
“Innocent III,” Christian History: Rulers. (Accessed 10/13/08) http://www.christianitytoday.com/ch/131christians/rulers/innocentiii.html
23. Bruce L. Shelley, Church History in Plain Language (Nashville, TN: Thomas
Nelson Publishers, 1982, 1995), p. 215.  Russell Chamberlin, The Bad Popes, pp. 87-93, op. cit.  J.N.D. Kelly, The Oxford Dictionary of Popes, p. 209, op. cit.  Richard P. McBrien, Lives of the Popes, p. 435, op. cit.
24. Russell Chamberlin, The Bad Popes, pp. 93-123, op. cit.  Claudio Rendina, The Popes: Histories and Secrets, pp. 357-364, op. cit.  J.N.D. Kelly, The Oxford Dictionary of Popes, pp. 208-210, op. cit.  Richard P. McBrien, Lives of the Popes, pp. 229-232, op. cit.
Pope Boniface VIII, Unam Sanctam, November 18, 1302. The quotation is near the end. (Accessed 10/13/08) http://www.newadvent.org/library/docs_bo08us.htm
25. Claudio Rendina, The Popes: Histories and Secrets, pp. 420-423, op. cit.  Richard P. McBrien, Lives of the Popes, pp. 263-264, op. cit.
26. Herbert Norris, Church Vestments: Their Origin & Development (Mineola, NY: Dover Publications, Inc., 2002), pp. 108-115. This discussion of the papal tiara includes several pictures of popes wearing tiaras.
Albert Skira, Treasures of the Vatican (Created by Albert Skira for Horizon Magazine, 1962), p. 86. This shows a portrait of Pope Alexander VI kneeling, with his tiara on the ground in front of him.
Richard P. McBrien, Lives of the Popes, op. cit. Following page 392, there is series of 40 pictures that have numbers. Pictures 13, 19, 20, 23, and 27 show popes seated on thrones.
National Geographic, Inside the Vatican pp. 92-93, op. cit. This photograph shows a life-sized statue of Saint Peter sitting on a papal throne inside Saint Peter’s Basilica. Pages 48-49 show the Pope being carried on a portable throne (the sedia gestatoria).
Six pictures of popes with the papal crown (tiara). Two of them show Popes Pius XII and John XXIII seated on an ornate papal throne. (Accessed 10/13/08) http://www.geocities.com/rexstupormundi/papalcrown.html
28. Eric Convey and Tom Mashberg, “Law Grilled in Deposition” The Boston Herald, May 8, 2002. The third and fourth paragraphs discuss Cardinal Law’s dual citizenship.
29. Herbert Norris, Church Vestments: Their Origin & Development, pp. 8, 183-185, op. cit.
National Geographic, Inside the Vatican, p. 58, op. cit. This shows a ring of Pope Pius IX. It has so many diamonds on it that you can barely see the gold.
“Rings,” Catholic Encyclopedia, Vol. XIII, 1912. (Accessed 10/13/08) http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/13059a.htm
“Pectorale,” Catholic Encyclopedia, Vol. XI, 1911. This is the pectoral cross which is worn by popes, cardinals, bishops, and abbots. It is made of precious metal (gold, silver, and/or platinum) and ornamented with jewels (diamonds, pearls, etc.). It contains a relic of a saint. (Accessed 10/13/08) http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/13059a.htm
30. Herbert Norris, Church Vestments: Their Origin & Development, op. cit. The entire book describes vestments that, for high-ranking churchmen, are often decorated with gold and jewels. Even their gloves have gold on them, and sometimes jewels as well. This was especially true during the Middle Ages, but it is also true today.
National Geographic, Inside the Vatican, pp. 59, 71, 83, 202, 209, op. cit. Page 59 shows a chalice of Pope Pius X that is solid gold and set with numerous diamonds. (When you look at it, you see more diamonds than gold.) Page 71 shows Pope John Paul II wearing a gold miter and vestments decorated with gold. Page 83 shows Pope John Paul II wearing gold vestments. (They are made of gold cloth, as opposed to just being decorated with gold.) Page 202 shows gloves and shoes of Pope Pius XII. They are decorated with gold. One pair of shoes has jewels on them. (They appear to be rubies and emeralds.) Page 209 shows a miter that was worn by Pope Paul VI and Pope John Paul I. It is decorated with gold and jewels.
In the Vatican, there is a portrait of Pope Alexander VI wearing gold vestments that are covered with jewels. There is a large, full-color picture in Albert Skira, Treasures of the Vatican, p. 86, op. cit.